VEE GEE Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Hydrometers, % By Saturation
- Brand: Vee Gee Scientific
- Product Code: VG6611-1
Hydrometers used for testing NaCl solutions (a.k.a. salimeters) are typically available in two different styles, percent saturation (0 to 100%) and percent by weight (0 to 26.5%). Both hydrometers measure exactly the same range of overall concentration for NaCl solutions; the results are simply expressed in two different scale units. The scale for NaCl percent by weight has a range of 0 to 26.5%. The high point of this range, 26.5% by weight, is the saturation point of NaCl within water. For instance, the highest concentration of dissolved NaCl that's possible in a 100g sample of brine is 26.5g of the total solution. On the other hand, the scale for NaCl percent saturation has a range of 0 to 100%. This measures the extent to which a NaCl solution is to reaching total saturation. Therefore, if a NaCl solution has reached 26.5% by weight it can be said that it's 100% saturated.
NaCl % Scale Conversion
% by Weight @ 60°F = % Saturation @ 60°F/3.7736
% Saturation @ 60°F = % by Weight @ 60°F x 3.7736
|NaCl Range||0 to 100%|
The hydrometer is an instrument which is constructed on the Archimedes principle that a solid body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. Hydrometers can be divided into two general classes; namely for liquids heavier than water and for liquids lighter than water. The base hydrometer scale is Specific Gravity, in which distilled water equals 1.000 as the initial point. Liquids lighter than water are scaled below 1.000 specific gravity and liquids heavier than water are scaled above 1.000 specific gravity. Many other scales are commonly used, such as API, Brix, Baume, Plato, etc. All of which are convertible into specific gravity by formula.
Hydrometers are usually calibrated at 60°F/ 60°F. To determine the density of a liquid, the liquid should be at 60°F. If the temperature varies, the liquid will either contract or expand, depending upon the temperature. Therefore, the density fluctuates with the temperature. Where there is a variation from the standard 60°F, corrections must be applied to the hydrometer reading. To assure proper corrections, a separate accurate thermometer should be used, or a hydrometer in combination with a thermometer, which is sometimes referred to as a “thermohydrometer.” The correct method of reading a hydrometer follows:
- Observe a point below the plane of the liquid surface. The surface should appear as an ellipse
- The line of vision is raised until the surface, seen first as an ellipse, becomes a straight line
- The point at which this line cuts the hydrometer scale is the reading of the instrument
If the liquid is not sufficiently clear for readings to be made in this manner, read from above the surface and estimate as accurately as possible the point to which the liquid rises on the hydrometer stem. Since hydrometers are calibrated to give correct indications when read at the principal surface of the liquid, correct the reading just taken at the upper edge of the meniscus by an amount equal to this height above the principal surface of the liquid. The amount of correction can be determined with the sufficient accuracy for most purposes by taking a few readings on the upper and lower meniscus in a clear liquid of the same character as that being tested and noting the differences.